Previously published in PGS-CA Bulletin (Issue #83, April 2007)
Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny (1880-1902)
by Helen C. Bienick
Żieluń, was a settlement, a village and a folwark (large farmstead) situated on the river Działdówka, in the county of Mława, district and parish of Żieluń. It was close to the boundary separating the Russian and Prussian partitions of Poland, 30 verst  from Mława. Żieluń had a parish church, built of brick, an elementary school, a synagogue, a district court, a customs house, a guard house for the border patrol, a savings bank, a distillery, 2 small breweries, a water mill, a brick making kiln, a wind mill, a small saw-mill, and 2 inns. In the 1890s there were 67 houses, with 1361 inhabitants. Market days were held weekly, on Wednesdays.
A high road linked Żieluń to the villages of Zuromin and Bieżun. In 1827 there were 51 houses and 650 inhabitants. In the year 1890, the folwark Żieluń-Dłutowo covered 1074 morgen  of land, of which 913 morgen were farms and gardens, 104 morgen were meadows, 21 morgen were pastures, 11 morgen were forests, and 25 morgen of land were unused. The folwark area consisted of 15 brick buildings, 17 made of wood, and 9 fields were assigned as fruit orchards. Besides Żieluń, there were many lesser settlements in the district. The village of Żieluń numbered 20 settlements on 893 morgen of land; Dłutowo had 41 settlements on 1143 morgen of land; Wawrowo with 16 settlements on 29 morgen of land; Wronka with 18 settlements on 1213 morgen of land; Kozilas village with 11 settlements on 323 morgen of land; and Ruda with 7 settlements on 284 morgen of land. The village of Straszewy (Lithuanian) had 18 settlements on 1093 morgen of land; Marszewnica (Lithuanian) had 5 settlements on 308 morgen of land; Przerodki had 13 settlements on 346 morgen of land; Konopaty had 7 settlements on 212 morgen of land. Adamowo had 8 settlements and 387 morgen of land; Lisia Góra had 7 settlements on 17 morgen of land, and the village of Jabłonowo had 58 settlements on 1744 morgen of land.
In the year 1578, Żieluń was a village in the parish of Lubowidz in the county of Sierpć, and was mentioned in the book Mazowsze, as written by Pawinski, a Polish historian. Thanks to its favorable location, the Żieluń area grew and prospered, and in 1588, a parish was organized and a wooden church was built. In 1778, King Stanislaus Augustus granted town privileges to the noble family, the Rudzinskis, who were governors in the district of Mazovia. Permission was granted to hold trade fairs on Wednesdays, with commerce in grains, cattle, and various farm and home implements. In 1767, an edict was issued forbidding the town to engage in the production of beer and wódka.
According to Echard's Dictionary, Żieluń was noted, as having a beautiful palace and a customs house. At this time, the owner of Żieluń was Count Zamoyski. By 1827, Żieluń was considered a well established town, and was noted for its cloth making industry. A t this time, it was the property of Adam Candid Zaleski.
The parish and church in Żieluń, belonged to the deanery of Mława, which numbered 2440 souls. Żieluń was located in the 1st district circuit court and the district covered an area of 16,940 morgen of land, with 399 houses. There were 4,121 inhabitants, of whom 7 were Orthodox, 206 were Jews, and the remainder were Catholics. The district at that time had two churches, a synagogue, a district civil office, and a customs house. Żieluń's district incorporated the following villages: Adamowo, Biernaty, Dłutowo, Jabłonowo, Kozilas, Marszewnica, Nicko, Przerodki, Ruda, Straszewy (Lithuanian), Wawrowo, Wronka, Wylazłowo, Zdojek, Konopaty and Żieluń.
Terms Requiring Further Explanation:
- ↑  Verst = 0.663 miles or 3500 feet
- ↑  Morgen (Polski) =~1.4 acres