Previously published in PGS-CA Bulletin (October 2011)
Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny (1880-1902)
by Helen Bienick
Sanniki, known as “Sannijki” in 1462, is a village and a folwark (a large farmstead usually owned by a noble family) located in the county of Gostynin, district and parish of Sanniki. It lies 26 verst (kilometers) from Łowicz, which connects to Sanniki with a highway. It lies 28 verst from Płock, 35 verst from Gostynin and 19 verst from the Wisła River. For a long time, Sanniki was the property of dukes and nobles.
Sanniki had a brick parish church, an elementary school, a shelter for the poor, and a hospital for the factory workers. Also located in the town were the local district court, the civil office, a post office, a sugar refinery, a distillery in 1875, a windmill, a brick-making kiln, and an inn with a restaurant. There was a liquor warehouse, six shops, three bakers, four butchers and 12 other craftsmen in the village. In the late 1800s, there were 89 houses (16 built of brick) and 1,912 inhabitants, of whom 1,807 were Catholics, 50 were Evangelicals, 10 were Baptists, and 44 were Jewish. Only 110 of these people could read and write.
In 1875 the Sanniki Folwark covered an area of 1,066 morgen (mr.)  of land. There were 910 mr. of gardens and farms, one mr. of meadows and 152 mr. not in use. There were 26 brick houses and 11 made of wood. Four mr. of land covered cattle-breeding farms. The estates of Sanniki included the following small villages: Krubin with 68 farm settlements on 1,091 mr.; Czyżewo, 41 farms on 1,209 mr.; Staropole with 29 farms on 602 mr. of land; Brzeziny, 2 farm settlements on 25 mr.; Borki, 28 farms on 424 mr.; Kępa Wolkowa, 2 farms on 30 mr. of land; Piaski, 38 settlements on 281 mr.; Rumunki, 25 settlements on 263 mr.; Troszyn Niemiecki with 52 settlements on 446 mr.; Troszynek, 18 settlements on 214 mr.; Piotrkówek, 66 settlements on 1,260 mr. of land; Troszyn Polski, 54 settlements on 526 mr.; Olszyny, 25 settlements on 95 mr.; Nowo-Budy with 15 settlements and Potrzebna, 5 mr.
A sugar beet refinery was established in 1849 by the Pruszak family and the local community. It was enlarged in 1854 and in 1859. The refinery handled 250,000 bushels of sugar beet crop and the yearly output of sugar totaled 500,000 pounds. Most of it was shipped to Russia. Improvements to the sugar factory were initiated in 1877 and by 1880, a new diffusion system was installed. In 1882 the factory passed into the hands of a partnership and became the property of the Natanson Brothers, with a capital of one million rubles. Many shareholders joined the new venture. The factory consisted of a few buildings, some four stories in height. The factory had batteries for the operation of ten different diffusion machines and mechanisms. Each diffuser handled 35 cases of sliced beets. There were four vacuum apparati made of copper, and one made of iron. There were 16 boilers and four stoves for burning the roots, and 16 steam machines of 200 horsepower each. Normally there were 300 employees, except for the peak season when the number sometimes reached 800. According to the writer K. Sek, there was a hospital for the workers near the factory.
The first church and parish was established in 1441 by Ziemont, a Mazovian Duke. This is verified by a document dated December 12, 1626 in the Poznan archives. A copy is retained in the archives of the Sanniki parish church. The first church survived to the days of Bishop Goślicki, who after his visitation to the church, wrote: “In the village of Sanniki is found a blessed and dedicated wooden church named after the Holy Trinity. Its interior is remodeled and has been in existence for 160 years. It still possesses the original document issued by Duke Ziemont of Mazovia granting permission for its construction”. The Bishop further noted that the church was in excellent condition, the roof was new and the cemetery carefully maintained. The church had three altars. It was probably built on a simple design, as were most churches in the Mazovia area at that time. The visiting Bishop also noted that there was a school building next door, with accommodations for the residence of the associated rector, the cantor and the janitor. After the church fell into ruin in 1872, a brand new edifice was built on its former location. It was constructed through the efforts of the Reverend Łukaszewski with financing by the local parishioners, the generosity of the local merchants, Jakub Natanson who owned the sugar refinery and his director, Julian Matłaszynski. Eventually the church became too small to accommodate the large parish, and so, it was enlarged by the architect, Wojciechowski. The antique bells were installed in a separate steeple. Sanniki parish belonged to the deanery of Gostynia, which numbered 3,139 souls.
In 1462 Władysław, a Duke of Mazovia, gifted Sanniki and the Gostynia area to his mother, Duchess Anna. (See the “Kodex of Mazovia, page 232). In the 16th century, the local pastor complained to authorities that the sheriff’s office in Gostynia confiscated the farms and gardens which were granted to the church by Duke Ziemont. In 1771, Sanniki was the property of Józef Sołłohub, the sheriff of Witebsko, who paid a tax of 1,500 złoty and 13 groszy, which was called a “hybernia” and was used to maintain the army during the winter. During the “sejm” (meeting of Parliament) in 1773-1775, the government granted the rights of control to a sheriff, Wacław Zabłocki, a writer from Gostynia.
Parish of Sanniki from the website http://www.diecezja.lowicz.pl/
Dedicated to St. Joseph, Spouse of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Deanery of Sanniki, County of Gostynin, Province of Mazowiecki, Number of Inhabitants: 3,509
Births from 1892
Marriages and Deaths from 1900
The parish was formed in 1441 when the first wooden church was built. It was remodeled in 1672. In 1863 the old church was dismantled and the present brick church was built between 1870-1872. The church was constructed according to the plans of Franciszek Tournalle, and built by the master builder, Thomas Matłaszynski. It is designed in the neo-classical style with three naves and two steeples. The main altar of the church features a painting of Our Lady of Częstochowa, and four side altars. The church was consecrated in the year 1900 by Archbishop Chościak Popiel, the Metropolitan Archbishop of Warsaw. During World War II, the pastor, L. Mocarski was arrested and sent to the Dachau Concentration Camp where he perished. The enemy closed the church and converted it into a warehouse. On the parish-owned terrain in nearby Mocarzewo stands the convent of the Sisters of the Resurrection, built in 1924. Next to it is a chapel built circa 1960 and dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus.
The following locations are part of the Sanniki parish: Alexandrów, Brzezia, Czyźew, Krubin, Mocarzewo, Sanniki, Staropol and Szkarada.
↑  One morg /mr. = ~2.116 acres.