Previously published in PGS-CA Bulletin (Issue #86, October 2007)
Translated from the Słownik Geograficzny (1880-1902)
by Helen Bienick
Pawęzów, with Marszówka and Zagórze, is a village in the county of Tarnów belonging to the Roman Catholic Church in Lisia Góra. It lies on an area of undulating ground, with small elevations of 211 to 270 meters above sea level. A long road running through the village leads to Tarnów, which is five kilometers distant. Another country road through Pawęzów leads to Łęg Tarnowski, and eventually joins the high road which runs from Tarnów to Żabno.
In the late 1800s, the village consisted of 95 houses and 545 inhabitants, of whom 264 were men and 281 were women. There were 521 Catholics and 21 Jews. Marszówka, which was located to the north of Pawęzów near the villages of Śmigno and Łukowa, had ten houses and 55 inhabitants (31 men and 24 women). Zagórze, which lies on the high road from Tarnów to Dąbrowa Tarnowska, had two houses and eight residents. It had a public house. The manor and noble estate of the Sanguszków nobility had two houses with 28 residents (10 men and 18 women), all Roman Catholics. This estate covered 279 morgen of farmland, 19 morgen of meadows, 1 morgen of gardens, 7 morgen of pastures and 4 morgen of forests. Another estate covered 474 morgen of farmland, 84 morgen of meadows and gardens. 55 morgen of pastures and 24 morgen of forests. [One morgen equals ~1.4 acres].
The village had a lending bank with a capital of 306 złoty. There were two brick chapels. One was privately owned and had no special privileges; the second was a public one, where services were held four times during the year. At one time the town had a Brotherhood of the Rosary, which eventually was changed to a Society.
Pawęzów borders Lisia Góra, Zaczarnie and Krzyż on the east, and Łeg Tarnowski and Bobrowniki Wielkie to the west. [Pawęzów presently has its own parish and church dedicated to our Lady, Queen of the World]
Parish Church in Pawęzów
translated by Helen Bienick
and printed with the permission of Fr. Antoni Piś.
In its beginning, the village of Pawęzów belonged to the parish church in Lisia Góra, as outlined in the book of schematics of the diocese of Kraków, published in 1529. This was its status until the 20th century. The inhabitants of Pawęzów longed for their own church. To attend Sunday Masses, they were forced to travel to Lisia Góra, or the town of Krzyź. Later, Mass was celebrated on Sundays only at a small wayside chapel. Before the start of World War II, an effort was made to build a church. A nobleman, Roman Sanguszko, donated 40 thousand bricks and lime stone, as a gift for receiving hunting privileges in the local forest. The outbreak of the war stalled all building plans, and the materials for construction were confiscated by the enemy, who returned them at the war's end. At first, an attempt was made to arrange a small chapel in the local fire house, specifically for the Sunday Mass. In the meantime, Franciszek Ostręga had the idea to construct a church on a small elevation across from the fire station. In 1948, the foundation was laid for its construction. The plans ran into disruption and cancellation by the new anti-religious Communist regime. It remained so for almost 10 years and the construction resumed in 1956, under the guidance of an engineer named Zdzisław Chorobik. Pawęzów finally had its own church, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Queen of the World. Jan Czczot and Ignacy Ostręga played an important part in its completion. On June l, 1958, the church was blessed by the Suffragan Bishop of Tarnów, Karol Pękala. At the start, there was no permanent pastor. Vicars from Lisia Góra traveled to Pawęzów to celebrate Sunday Mass. From October 1962 to June 1965, Reverend Józef Kornaus took over the clerical duties, followed by the Reverend Karol Mazur. Finally on July 22, 1965, Bishop Jerzy Ablewicz appointed Reverend Jan Bereś as the new rector. After his retirement, he remained to assist the new pastor, Reverend Antoni Piś. Approval to construct the church was totally ignored by the Communist Party, but the people proceeded to build it secretly.
The rectory, home for the priest, was built quite a distance from the church. A new one closer to the church was built in 1967. To fool the anti-religious Communists, (Polish Workers Party), a certain Jan Foszt was instrumental in its construction, stating he was building his private home. The Reverend Jan Bereś finally had a proper home. Here he taught catechism to the children of Pawęzów and Śmigno. In 1967, the church cemetery was established. The church and Parish in Pawęzów was finally sanctioned by the Party in 1980, with its official pastor being Jan Bereś.
Two sacristies were built, three bells were installed, and the roof was covered with copper plate. A marble floor was laid, other amenities included an altar, a pulpit, a baptismal font, and stained glass windows. An electric heating system, a new organ, and amplifiers were installed. The artists, Bogdan and Anatol Drwal, carved the statues of the Virgin Mary, and St. Joseph in bas relief, as well as the Sacred Heart of Jesus. In the side nave, a picture of the Blessed Mother was placed. She is pictured holding the child Jesus. This picture was originally brought to Pawęzów from Rome by a Reverend Paniewski. It was placed in the old wayside chapel. After the old chapel was demolished, the picture disappeared and ended up in a private home. During a certain period, the town of Pawęzów was constantly battling mysterious fires. In a dream, a local blind woman had a vision and was told to obey the wishes of heaven, which mandated that the picture be returned and installed in the local church for the use by parishioners in their prayers. Upon its return to the church, the fire plague ceased. A certain parishioner, Julian Wałaszka, was very instrumental in organizing various pilgrimages to the shrines in Poland. In autumn of 1977, permission was granted by the Reds to build another rectory, close to the church grounds. The old rectory was turned into a retreat house. A bronze cross was erected on the right side of the church, and on the left side, a statue of St. Adalbert (Wojciech). The Cross and statue were funded in 1997 to commemorate the martyrdom of St. Adalbert, who is the patron saint of the church in Lisia Góra, the former parish for the people of Pawęzów.
Some of the notable people born in Pawęzów, include; Monsignor Julian Juza, who was instrumental in building a church in Tęgoborzi; Reverend Józef Kornaus (diocese of Pelpin); Father Andrzej Gut, a Carmelite who is assigned to the city of Przemyśl; and Sister Agnes Moskal, from the order of the Sister Servants of Jesus. Father Andrzej, the provincial director of the Dominican Order for Ukraine and Russia, was also baptized in Pawęzów.
In the year 2000 Reverend Jan Bereś retired. He remains living in Pawęzów, and still serves the people. The inhabitants treat him with respect and loyalty, as they remember the bitter times, when with his aid they fought the "battle" for their own church and rectory. In the same year, Father Antoni Piś was appointed the new pastor, and in a short time gained the respect of his parish through his devotional services. He expanded the Diocesan Catholic Action Society, DSM. In 2005 the parish observed the golden jubilee of the appointment of Rev. Jan Bereś their first permanent pastor. In 2008 the parish will observe its 50th anniversary.
History of Pawęzów
translated by Helen Bienick
and printed with the permission of Fr. Antoni Piś.
The exact date of the founding of the village of Pawęzów is not known. Reportedly, it may have been at the beginning of the 13th century, at which time it was part of the ancient province of Sandomierz. The name "Pawęzów" came into being much later. Considering the etymology of its name, the meaning could be traced to the 14th century. During that era, the area was noted for the production of "paweze", which are large rectangular shields made of wood (escutcheons). These were covered with animal skins or tin and adorned with small drawings, and were used in battle by the Polish foot soldiers during the 14th, 15th, and 16th century.
In the year 1229, part of the village of Pawęzów was the property of the Abbey of the Benedictine Fathers of Tyniec. The remaining part was the property and holding of successive noble families. At the beginning of the 14th century, it passed into the hands of the founder of the city of Tarnów, a certain nobleman named Spycimir Leliwita. In 1364, Rafal, the son of Spycimir, bought out the section owned by the Abbey. Pawęzów belonged to the Tarnów nobility until 1848. Among these noble families, one finds the names; Tarnowski, Ostrogski, Zasławski, Zamoyski, Lubomirski, Radziwiłł, and Sanguszko. The books detailing heirs and endowments found in Kraków, document that Pawęzów belonged to the church in Lisia Góra in 1529, and states that there were 24 farm owners in the village. In 1663, Bishop Trzebnicki assigned the tithes from Pawęzów to be used for the benefit of the parish church in Lisia Góra.
After the first partition of Poland by Austria, Russia and Prussia in 1772, Pawęzów came under Austrian domination. A few citizens of Pawęzów led by Jakub Szeli, participated in the 1846 rebellion against Austria. The village endured hard times with an epidemic called "The Black Death" at the start of the 19th century. Yellow fever and cholera raged in the years 1831, 1855, and 1893. Two years later, many of the villagers perished from an infected and contaminated potato crop.
In the second half of the 19th century, Pawęzów was considered an important village in the region. This can be verified in the "Geographical Dictionary of the Kingdom of Poland (Słownik Geograficzny) as published in the year 1884. [See Pawęzów translation on page 3].
Towards the end of the 19th century, the citizens of Pawęzów took an active part in the political, patriotic, and civil life, as evidenced after 1895, when a Peoples Party was formed. An active member, Wincenty Witos from Wierzchosławice, became a premier. In 1906, the male population participated in an assembly organized by Witos in Łęg Tarnowski. During the 1st World War, hopes for independence arose in the villagers. Many young men enlisted in the Detachment of Polish Riflemen in Tarnów; later they joined the 1st and 2nd Brigades of the Polish Legions. On October 30-31, Tarnów and its neighbors, including Pawęzów, gained their independence from the Austrian Empire before the armistice of November 1918.
Between the two world wars many organizations were founded, among them the Piast Circle, and the young peoples Wici Circle. In 1928 they participated in national celebrations as the Peasant Circle. In the 1930s, Wincenty Witos called the peasants to strike and to boycott the elections to the Parliament of the new Republic. Pawęzow experienced the start of the Second World War on September 8, 1939.
Many inhabitants were required to serve the Nazi invaders, with many young boys and girls being sent to Germany's hard labor camps. Members of the "Wici" circles joined the Battalions and the Polish Army. In their honor, on October 28, 1973, a memorial plaque was erected on the old Peoples House in Pawęzów. Presently, it can be found at the cemetery next to the church along with the monument to the "fallen". Mentioned on it are Józef Bogacz, Mieczysław Kiełbasa, and Jan Moskal as well as Wojciech Wałaszka, who was murdered in Miednoje. The villagers will never forget the atrocity committed in the forest of Sosnina, which is located between Pawęzów and Śmigno. Eleven men and two women, whose names are unknown, were brought there from the prison in Tarnów and shot to death, without mercy. Their remains are buried in the cemetery in Lisia Góra. At long last the war in Pawęzów ended on January 18, 1945. Pawęzów was free and slowly began to rebuild the village, with the United Peoples Organization formed in 1949. Many organizations were formed, such as the Young Peoples Club, a village governing committee, and a Fire Department. Discontent was manifest and protests were staged by the farmers whose private farms were being confiscated by the Communist regime. The Farmers Circle was soon outlawed. In the 1970s, the village of Krzyź was annexed to Tarnów. Pawęzów then became a border town of this agglomerate. As a result many people of Pawęzów were able to find employment there, and the young generation could attend the middle schools. From here they were able to transfer to a higher school in Krzyź. Cultural life flourished thanks to the aid of the Polish Peoples Home and the Cultural Center in Śmigno.
Many people emigrated to the U.S.A. in search of employment. Pawęzów has developed into a charming village, well managed, orderly and clean. Some of the inhabitants have resigned themselves to abandoning traditional farming in favor of employment in nearby Tarnów. Others expanded their farm operations, and engage in growing specialized produce. Many newcomers are settling in Pawęzów now, and are into the life style of the community. New houses with interesting architectural features are being constructed. The young people are eager for education, attend the middle schools, and are making plans to attend college for degrees and doctorates. Social conditions are fine. The village now contains a canal, and water facilities, a gas station, and a telephone system. The computer age has arrived, and use of the Internet has become common. The canon, Reverend Jan Bereś, and the pastor Antoni Piś are held in esteem and high regard for looking after the spiritual needs of the parishioners. There is a six-classroom school that is under the direction of Teresa Rydzy. The village has its own fire department. The present mayor is Stanisław Drwal.